HomeHealth A-ZBasic Metabolic Panel (BMP): What It Is, Risk Factors & Results

Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP): What It Is, Risk Factors & Results

What is a basic metabolic panel? 

A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a test carried out to measure 8 substances in the blood. This test provides information about the chemical balance and metabolism of a body. Metabolism is a process in which the body uses all food and energy. The BMP test has the following substances measured: 

  • Glucose – It helps to check blood sugar levels. If the glucose levels are abnormally high or low then it is a sign of issues. 
  • Calcium – It is one of the most important minerals needed for the body. It helps to check the functioning of nerves, muscles and heart. It also determines the parathyroid problem and kidney bone. 
  • Sodium, potassium, carbon dioxide and chloride – Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that assist regulate the amount of fluid in the body as well as the balance of acids and bases. 
  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine – It determines kidney function by measuring the amount of nitrogen in the blood. 

Any of these compounds, or a combination of them, at abnormal levels, can indicate a major health condition. 

Why is a basic metabolic panel used? 

The basic metabolic panel gives the surgeon an idea about the problems found in the individual like: 

The BMP brings into light medical issues like: 

If any of the above-mentioned indicators are not normal, then more detailed tests are recommended by the surgeon. A panel test has various advantages like using one blood sample various tests can be done. The blood will then be divided in a lab later. 

What are the possible risk factors of BMP? 

On removal of blood, moderate pain or pinching will be experienced. When the needle is removed, a throbbing sensation is experienced. The healthcare provider usually asks the individual to apply pressure on the site when the needle was inserted. To stop any bleeding, a bandage will be applied and left in place for 10 to 20 minutes. The rest of the day should be spent avoiding heavy lifting with that arm.  

Certain risks involved in taking blood samples are: 

  • Lightheadedness 
  • Hematoma – Accumulation of blood under the skin 
  • Infection – it can be prevented if the needle is cleaned and inserted into the skin 
  • Excessive bleeding – if it bleeds for a longer period, it indicates a serious condition and calls for a consultation immediately

What do the test results mean? 

Depending on age, gender, health history and the method of test used, the results of the test vary. It’s possible that test results don’t indicate an issue. Inquire with a doctor about the implications of the test results. Milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L), or millimoles per liter (mmol/L) are the units of measurement. Depending on the lab, the normal adult range of each parameter within the test can differ.  

Out-of-range results can be caused by a variety of medical issues. Dehydration, diabetes-related complications, lung issues, and kidney or liver issues are among them. If a test result is very high or low, the doctor may likely prescribe one or more follow-up tests to figure out what’s wrong. 

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