HomeOpthalmologyWhat are the common diseases of the eyes?

What are the common diseases of the eyes?

Most people face eye problems at some point of time in life. Some may be minor, which will go away on their own or can be treated easily at home, while others may be major that need Ophthalmologist specialist for care.

There are many diseases which don’t exhibit any symptoms or warnings. However, your eye specialist can detect and manage these diseases before they damage your anatomy. Therefore, it is mandatory to have regular eye checkups.

The following are some of the common eye diseases which your ophthalmologist  may uncover:

Dry Eye # Dry eye happens when either tear glands produce fewer tears to the glands which secrete the only layer over tear film get blocked, leading to increased evaporation of tear can be Red eye drops to oral medications as the need. When you cry, the tiny tear glands form the tears that surround the eye. Dry eye happens is a condition where the tiny glands become unstable which results in the production of fewer tears than normal. The common symptoms exhibited by this disease are redness, watery eyes, pain, grit, and fluctuating vision. It is more prevalent in women compared to men. However, this can be treated with eye drops or in more serious cases, minor surgery.

Glaucoma:  Age above 40 years, – glaucoma is of 2 types 1. Angle-closure 2. open-angle glaucoma-Open angle glaucoma is generally asymptomatic and leads to progressive field loss if undiagnosed angle-closure glaucoma presents with eye pain redress, photophobia (intolerance to light), and blessed vision during an attack.

Treatment is either with eye drops to decrease IOP in open-angle Glaucoma with surgery in occasional cases,

Cataracts: Cataracts are one of the most common eye diseases that develop over time and cause cloudy vision. It makes it hard to read or see things normally and is very common as you get older. It can be cured with simple outpatient cataract surgery. During cataract surgery, your doctor may remove cataracts so that your vision will be restored to normal

Ocular Allergies: Eye allergies: Symptoms include reduce itching swelling discharge from eyes Treatment includes anti allergies T lubricants & cold compresses T avoiding exposure to allergies like dust, pollen, pets, etc These are simply known as eye allergies and may differ from patient to patient. The symptoms are relatively the same which include redness, itching, swelling, and sometimes pain for which your Eye doctors may prescribe medicine or eye drops to make the allergies less bothersome.

Diabetic Retinopathy:  Diabetic retinopathy is a very common condition in patients with diabetes for a large part of their life. Patients with diabetic retinopathy will experience blurred vision and/or vision loss because of having too much sugar in their blood. This is due to the high amount of sugar which can cut off the blood supply to the back of the retina and can hinder new blood vessels from growing. 

Eyestrain Lymphoma: Eyestrain is a very common condition among people who read for hours, work at a computer, or drive long distances. It happens when you strain your eyes. This is because your eyes get tired and need rest, just like other parts of your body.

Color & Night Blindness: Night blindness is often a symptom, not a problem. This may be due to nearsightedness, cataracts, keratoconus, and a lack of vitamin A which your doctors may fix.

Retinal Disorders: Retinal disorders occur when the thin lining on the back of your eye that is made up of cells that collect images and pass them on to your brain gets affected. 

The above listed are the most common issues that eye doctors find in patients. There are no apparent symptoms in some eye diseases due to which your eye doctor doesn’t have the opportunity to detect a problem and these remain untreated.

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Verified By Dr Rachna Vinaya Kumar
MS, FAICO,FICO, MRCS Ed, Consultant Paediatric Opthalmology, Neuro Opthalmology & Squint, Apollo Hospitals, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad
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